Zachary Hornby. Boundless

'A fourth rev­o­lu­tion in can­cer ther­a­pies': ARCH-backed Bound­less Bio flash­es big check, makes big­ger promis­es in de­but

It was the cel­lu­lar equiv­a­lent of open­ing your car door and find­ing an ac­tive, roar­ing en­gine in the dri­ver seat.

Paul Mis­chel

Sci­en­tists learned strands of DNA could oc­ca­sion­al­ly ap­pear out­side of its tra­di­tion­al home in the nu­cle­us in the 1970s, when they ap­peared as lit­tle, in­nocu­ous cir­cles on mi­cro­scopes; in­ex­plic­a­ble but ap­par­ent­ly in­nate. But not un­til UC San Diego’s Paul Mis­chel pub­lished his first study in Sci­ence in 2014 did re­searchers re­al­ize these cir­cles were not on­ly ac­tive but po­ten­tial­ly over­ac­tive and dri­ving some can­cer tu­mors’ su­per­hu­man growth.

That in­sight and the en­su­ing five years of re­search will now get $46 mil­lion cash and com­pa­ny in­fra­struc­ture to ramp in­to tar­get­ed ther­a­pies as Bound­less Bio emerges from stealth mode with back­ing from ARCH Ven­ture Part­ners and City Hill. Ques­tions abound, from what pre­cise­ly a drug would look like to what even gives rise to these wild DNA, but CEO Zachary Horn­by isn’t bit­ing his tongue on the po­ten­tial.

“We’re think­ing about this as a fourth rev­o­lu­tion in can­cer ther­a­pies,” Horn­by, who was most re­cent­ly COO of Igny­ta, told End­points News. The first three rev­o­lu­tions, by Horn­by’s count, are chemother­a­py in the 1940s, the first tar­get­ed ther­a­pies at the end of the 20th cen­tu­ry, and the re­cent rise of im­munother­a­py.

The road to such a rev­o­lu­tion would be long, but the em­bat­tled on­col­o­gy field may be in need of new di­rec­tion. A study re­leased in April found 97% of can­cer drugs test­ed in clin­i­cal tri­als failed to make it to mar­ket, and this month re­searchers found sys­temic tar­get­ing prob­lems plagued two decades of can­cer re­search.

The con­nec­tion be­tween this loose DNA, of­fi­cial­ly called ex­tra­chro­mo­so­mal DNA or ecD­NA, and can­cer cen­ters around a baf­fling and dead­ly fact about some tu­mors: While nor­mal cells in a high­er-or­der species like hu­mans don’t evolve with­in a gen­er­a­tion, some can­cer cells can evolve rapid­ly, en­sur­ing their sur­vival against at­tempt­ed treat­ments. Why? How? Mis­chel’s map­ping of can­cer genome points to ecD­NA.

Freed from a cell’s chro­mo­somes, the DNA can repli­cate rapid­ly. That doesn’t hurt if they code for noth­ing or some­thing be­nign, but if they code for some­thing that gives the cell an ad­van­tage, such as EGFR (a growth fac­tor), the cells will grow rapid­ly as in any clas­si­cal nat­ur­al se­lec­tion mod­el. This, Horn­by said, ap­pears in over 25% of can­cers, in­clud­ing no­to­ri­ous­ly hard to treat MET can­cers.

EGFR in­hibitors al­ready ex­ist to com­bat can­cer cells that have al­ready evolved (or been “am­pli­fied”), but Bound­less Bio plans to use Mis­chel’s in­sights to de­stroy ecD­NA in its ear­ly stages. Rather than at­tack­ing tu­mors af­ter the cells have al­ready am­pli­fied, the com­pa­ny would jam the process that gives rise to the evo­lu­tion in the first place.

“It opens a whole new av­enue of can­cer tar­gets, in­clud­ing al­low­ing us to pur­sue pa­tient pop­u­la­tions that to this point have been un­drug­gable,” Horn­by said, point­ing to MET and Myc. “That’s just a re­al­ly dif­fer­ent ap­proach than your typ­i­cal tar­get­ed ther­a­pies.”

But how they would do this is still cloudy.

Horn­by said the most promis­ing method was jam­ming the “en­zy­mat­ic ma­chin­ery” — the mol­e­c­u­lar tools and parts that al­low DNA to repli­cate and code pro­teins — as their re­search has shown the ma­chin­ery is slight­ly dif­fer­ent in ecD­NA than typ­i­cal DNA. An­oth­er method they’re ex­plor­ing is to in­hib­it the meta­bol­ic path­ways ecD­NA can use to ful­fill the de­mands caused by its high repli­ca­tion rate; in oth­er words, grow­ing DNA that are hun­gry and de­priv­ing them of food could neu­tral­ize them.

Among the most no­table things about Bound­less’ po­ten­tial ther­a­pies is that they may be ap­proved for tu­mor type, rather than can­cer type, i.e. like the new drug from Horn­by’s old com­pa­ny Igny­ta, it could treat a wide range of can­cers if the pa­tient showed ecD­NA was am­pli­fy­ing in the tu­mor.

The com­pa­ny will al­so in­vest in re­search to dis­cov­er the un­der­ly­ing mech­a­nism giv­ing rise to ecD­NA.

The DCT-OS: A Tech­nol­o­gy-first Op­er­at­ing Sys­tem - En­abling Clin­i­cal Tri­als

As technology-enabled clinical research becomes the new normal, an integrated decentralized clinical trial operating system can ensure quality, deliver consistency and improve the patient experience.

The increasing availability of COVID-19 vaccines has many of us looking forward to a time when everyday things return to a state of normal. Schools and teachers are returning to classrooms, offices and small businesses are reopening, and there’s a palpable sense of optimism that the often-awkward adjustments we’ve all made personally and professionally in the last year are behind us, never to return. In the world of clinical research, however, some pandemic-necessitated adjustments are proving to be more than emergency stopgap measures to ensure trial continuity — and numerous decentralized clinical trial (DCT) tools and methodologies employed within the last year are likely here to stay as part of biopharma’s new normal.

Onno van de Stolpe, Galapagos CEO (Thierry Roge/Belga Mag/AFP via Getty Images)

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The filgotinib disaster didn’t warrant a mention as Galapagos laid out its Darwinian restructuring plans. Forced to make choices, the company is ditching its IPF molecule ’1205, while moving ahead with a Phase II IPF study for its chitinase inhibitor ’4617.

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Ron DePinho (file photo)

A 'fly­over' biotech launch­es in Texas with four Ron De­Pin­ho-found­ed com­pa­nies un­der its belt

In his 13 years at Genzyme, Michael Wyzga noticed something about East Coast drugmakers. Execs would often jet from Boston or New York to San Francisco to find more assets, and completely miss the work being done in flyover states, like Texas or Wisconsin.

“If it doesn’t come out of MGH or MIT or Harvard, probably not that interesting,” he said of the mindset.

Now, he and some well-known industry players are looking to change that, and they’ve reeled in just over $38 million to do it.

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CEO Khurem Farooq (Gyroscope)

Hours be­fore ex­pect­ed de­but, Gy­ro­scope post­pones its IPO as 2 oth­er biotechs hold the line on their march to Nas­daq

Editor’s note: Interested in following biopharma’s fast-paced IPO market? You can bookmark our IPO Tracker here.

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Working on a gene therapy for wet AMD, Gyroscope was all set and ready to go public earlier this week, setting terms for a $142 million raise with a price range of $20 to $22. But in the wee hours of Friday morning, the company put out a press release saying they would delay their debut “in light of market conditions,” CEO Khurem Farooq said in a statement.

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Angela Merkel (AP Photo/Michael Sohn)

Covid-19 roundup: Pfiz­er sub­mits vac­cine for full ap­proval; Merkel op­pos­es Biden pro­pos­al to sus­pend IP for vac­cines

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Peter Marks, director of the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, previously told Endpoints News that the review of the BLA should take between three and four months, but it may be even faster than that.

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In its first quarter earnings call on Thursday, Moderna CEO Stéphane Bancel shrugged off any suggestion that the newly US-backed intellectual property waiver would impact his company’s vaccine or bottom line. Still, the company’s stock price fell by about 9% in early morning trading.

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'Chang­ing the whole game of drug dis­cov­ery': Leg­endary R&D vet Roger Perl­mut­ter leaps back in­to work as a biotech CEO

Roger Perlmutter needs no introduction to anyone remotely involved in biopharma. As the R&D chief first at Amgen and then Merck, he’s built a stellar reputation and a prolific career steering new drugs toward the market for everything from cancer to infectious diseases.

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An­oth­er failed tri­al for Or­p­hazyme's 'pipeline-in-a-pro­duc­t' leaves shad­ow on drug's fu­ture

The tumultuous ride for Orphazyme continued on Friday as the company announced that a pivotal trial for its lead drug arimoclomol failed yet again, this time in the treatment of ALS, seeding doubt in a drug that had recently been cleared by the FDA for priority review. The latest failure casts a darker shadow on the upcoming decision despite Orphazyme’s upbeat outlook.

In a statement, the Danish biotech announced that the drug did not meet its primary or secondary endpoints evaluating function and survival. But the company has not announced any data surrounding the failure, instead saying that it will publish the complete results later this year.

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Editor’s note: Interested in following biopharma’s fast-paced IPO market? You can bookmark our IPO Tracker here.

As the Covid-19 pandemic made conventional trials impossible for some drugmakers, more and more companies moved to decentralize their clinical studies, accelerating business for tech developers like Science 37. Leveraging that boost, the company is on the verge of a SPAC merger, landing unicorn status and its very own stock ticker.