Should J&J win an OK for a flawed de­pres­sion drug af­ter no­table tri­al fail­ures? FDA re­view of­fers a path for­ward

Should the FDA ig­nore its gold stan­dard and ap­prove J&J’s top drug prospect es­ke­t­a­mine with­out sol­id sup­port­ing ev­i­dence from two well-con­trolled stud­ies? Even af­ter it failed in oth­er stud­ies and presents some se­ri­ous safe­ty is­sues to deal with?

In an in­ter­nal re­view post­ed on­line this morn­ing, reg­u­la­tors posed those ques­tions to an ex­pert com­mit­tee this morn­ing pick­ing up the phar­ma gi­ant’s pitch for their ver­sion of the par­ty drug ke­t­a­mine. Their an­swer may well in­flu­ence the en­tire field of de­pres­sion drug re­search, where fail­ures are far more com­mon than suc­cess.

J&J has a lot rid­ing on this one. The phar­ma gi­ant has tapped es­ke­t­a­mine as one of its top late-stage ef­forts, putting it in a line­up of po­ten­tial block­busters the com­pa­ny is push­ing to beef up rev­enue.

The agency has al­ready blessed J&J with its break­through ther­a­py des­ig­na­tion for es­ke­t­a­mine, im­pressed by the mid-stage da­ta that was pro­duced to show how its in­tranasal ther­a­py brought swift re­lief to pa­tients suf­fer­ing from deep de­pres­sion.

That as­pect of the drug is well known. Ke­t­a­mine — known in par­ty cir­cles as Spe­cial K  — is a horse tran­quil­iz­er that al­so has pro­duced a fast ef­fect in a long range of aca­d­e­m­ic stud­ies over the years. In com­ing up with its own ver­sion, J&J is look­ing to keep the swift im­pact and lose the hal­lu­cino­genic qual­i­ties that make it a con­trolled sub­stance.

De­pres­sion, though, is a mass mar­ket, and the bar on an ap­proval is high, as Richard Pops could tell you af­ter Alk­er­mes was re­peat­ed­ly slapped down on ‘5461. An­ti­de­pres­sants on the mar­ket, though, are of­ten used ran­dom­ly, in se­quence, to find one that can pro­duce an ef­fect — of­ten tak­ing weeks to be­gin work­ing.

For its stud­ies, J&J re­searchers re­cruit­ed heav­i­ly pre-treat­ed pa­tients in des­per­ate need of a ther­a­py. They were start­ed on a new an­ti­de­pres­sant plus es­ke­t­a­mine, fig­ur­ing that an­ti­de­pres­sants usu­al­ly act so slow­ly it wouldn’t in­ter­fere with es­ke­t­a­mine’s fast ac­tion.

As the re­view notes, J&J has pos­i­tive re­sults from “the flex­i­ble-dose tri­al in adults younger than 65 years of age and the ran­dom­ized with­draw­al study.” With­draw­al stud­ies, though, are gen­er­al­ly not rec­og­nized as a well con­trolled study that qual­i­fies as one of the 2 typ­i­cal­ly need­ed stud­ies for an ap­proval.

Then there were the fail­ures — which, by the way, are quite com­mon in de­pres­sion. One rea­son why J&J ran 5 stud­ies is to give them­selves bet­ter odds at suc­cess, rather than re­strict­ing them­selves to 2 piv­otals.

In the fixed-dose study of adults younger than 65 years of age, the pre­spec­i­fied analy­sis plan dic­tat­ed that ef­fi­ca­cy of the 84-mg dose would be eval­u­at­ed first, fol­lowed by eval­u­a­tion of the 56-mg dose. How­ev­er, the 84-mg dose did not sep­a­rate from place­bo and the test­ing se­quence end­ed there. The geri­atric study in­clud­ed flex­i­ble dos­es rang­ing from 28 to 84 mg; the ef­fect of es­ke­t­a­mine in the com­bined dose group was not sta­tis­ti­cal­ly su­pe­ri­or to place­bo (1-sided p = 0.029).

The safe­ty pro­file is al­so far from be­nign, in­clud­ing se­da­tion, dis­so­cia­tive be­hav­ior and in­creased blood pres­sure as pri­ma­ry con­cerns. And none of that was new to the R&D team when they start­ed the work.

To get an OK here will al­so clear­ly re­quire a de­tailed risk mit­i­ga­tion plan, and the FDA wants its ex­perts to weigh in on that as well. The pro­posed REMS in­cludes 2 hours of mon­i­tor­ing af­ter the drug is giv­en to the pa­tient. There will be no dis­tri­b­u­tion of the drug to pa­tients — to avoid abuse — and the plan now is to in­clude a pa­tient reg­istry to track risks.

The FDA’s in­ter­nal re­view nei­ther sug­gests an ap­proval is war­rant­ed or that the pan­el should vote no. The agency has al­ready proved its will­ing­ness to forego the 2-tri­al stan­dard, at least in oth­er dis­eases. The big ques­tion is whether the ex­perts will go for a new and clear­ly im­per­fect drug to add for a group of pa­tients with nowhere else to turn. Un­der those cir­cum­stances, J&J seems to have pret­ty good odds of suc­cess in a field bet­ter known for re­peat­ed set­backs.

Health­care Dis­par­i­ties and Sick­le Cell Dis­ease

In the complicated U.S. healthcare system, navigating a serious illness such as cancer or heart disease can be remarkably challenging for patients and caregivers. When that illness is classified as a rare disease, those challenges can become even more acute. And when that rare disease occurs in a population that experiences health disparities, such as people with sickle cell disease (SCD) who are primarily Black and Latino, challenges can become almost insurmountable.

David Meek, new Mirati CEO (Marlene Awaad/Bloomberg via Getty Images)

Fresh off Fer­Gene's melt­down, David Meek takes over at Mi­rati with lead KRAS drug rac­ing to an ap­proval

In the insular world of biotech, a spectacular failure can sometimes stay on any executive’s record for a long time. But for David Meek, the man at the helm of FerGene’s recent implosion, two questionable exits made way for what could be an excellent rebound.

Meek, most recently FerGene’s CEO and a past head at Ipsen, has become CEO at Mirati Therapeutics, taking the reins from founding CEO Charles Baum, who will step over into the role of president and head of R&D, according to a release.

Dave Lennon, former president of Novartis Gene Therapies

Zol­gens­ma patent spat brews be­tween No­var­tis and Re­genxbio as top No­var­tis gene ther­a­py ex­ec de­parts

Regenxbio, a small licensor of gene therapy viral vectors spun out from the University of Pennsylvania, is now finding itself in the middle of some major league patent fights.

In addition to a patent suit with Sarepta Therapeutics from last September, Novartis, is now trying to push its smaller partner out of the way. The Swiss biopharma licensed Regenxbio’s AAV9 vector for its $2.1 million spinal muscular atrophy therapy Zolgensma.

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Ex-My­lan em­ploy­ee pleads guilty to in­sid­er trad­ing, il­le­gal­ly deal­ing on FDA ap­provals, earn­ings and Up­john merg­er

A former Mylan IT executive pleaded guilty Friday to an insider trading scheme where he bought and sold stock options on another executive’s advice.

Prosecutors secured the plea from Dayakar Mallu, Mylan’s former VP of global operations information technology, after uncovering the plan. Mallu collaborated with an unnamed “senior manager,” the SEC said, to trade options ahead of Mylan public announcements regarding FDA approvals, revenue reports and its merger with the Pfizer generics subsidiary Upjohn. The two subsequently shared profits.

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Volker Wagner (L) and Jeff Legos

As Bay­er, No­var­tis stack up their ra­dio­phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal da­ta at #ES­MO21, a key de­bate takes shape

Ten years ago, a small Norwegian biotech by the name of Algeta showed up at ESMO — then the European Multidisciplinary Cancer Conference 2011 — and declared that its Bayer-partnered targeted radionuclide therapy, radium-223 chloride, boosted the overall survival of castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with symptomatic bone metastases.

In a Phase III study dubbed ALSYMPCA, patients who were treated with radium-223 chloride lived a median of 14 months compared to 11.2 months. The FDA would stamp an approval on it based on those data two years later, after Bayer snapped up Algeta and christened the drug Xofigo.

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Ex­elix­is pulls a sur­prise win in thy­roid can­cer just days ahead of fi­nal Cabome­tyx read­out

Exelixis added a thyroid cancer indication to its super-seller Cabometyx’s label on Friday — months before the FDA was expected to make a decision, and days before the company was set to unveil the final data at #ESMO21.

At a median follow-up of 10.1 months, differentiated thyroid cancer patients treated with Cabometyx (cabozantinib) lived a median of 11 months without their disease worsening, compared to just 1.9 months for patients given a placebo, Exelixis said on Monday.

Den­mark's Gubra to col­lab­o­rate with Bay­er on pep­tides; Sam­sung and Bio­gen re­ceive FDA ap­proval for Lu­cen­tis biosim­i­lar

Danish biotech Gubra announced a research collaboration and license agreement with Bayer to develop peptide therapeutics to treat cardiorenal diseases. The collaboration will utilize Gubra’s peptide drug discovery platform to identify potential candidates.

This is not the first time Gubra has partnered with a company on peptide therapeutics — they partnered with Boehringer Ingelheim back in 2017 to create peptide therapeutics to treat obesity.

Rafaèle Tordjman (Jeito Capital)

Con­ti­nu­ity and di­ver­si­ty: Rafaèle Tord­j­man's women-led VC firm tops out first fund at $630M

For a first-time fund, Jeito Capital talks a lot about continuity.

Rafaèle Tordjman had spotlighted that concept ever since she started building the firm in 2018, promising to go the extra mile(s) with biotech entrepreneurs while pushing them to reach patients faster.

Coincidentally, the lack of continuity was one of the sore spots listed in a report about the European healthcare sector published that same year by the European Investment Bank — whose fund is one of the LPs, alongside the American pension fund Teacher Retirement System of Texas and Singapore’s Temasek, to help Jeito close its first fund at $630 million (€534 million). As previously reported, Sanofi had chimed in €50 million, marking its first investment in a French life sciences fund.

Mi­rati tri­umphs again in KRAS-mu­tat­ed lung can­cer with a close­ly watched FDA fil­ing now in the cards

After a busy weekend at #ESMO21, which included a big readout for its KRAS drug adagrasib in colon cancer, Mirati Therapeutics is ready to keep the pressure on competitor Amgen with lung cancer data that will undergird an upcoming filing.

In topline results from a Phase II cohort of its KRYSTAL-1 study, adagrasib posted a response rate of 43% in second-line-or-later patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer containing a KRAS-G12C mutation, Mirati said Monday.